What is diabetic foot?

Low immunity affects tactile nerve endings in limbs. That causes hyposensitivity to cuts and blisters on feet; those can further cause infections and other complications. It is very important to take care of feet and quality footwear.


Does diabetes cause changes in mood?

There are five most common emotional responses to diabetes. Denial – ignoring the illness and treatment; fear – hopelessness, feeling powerless over one’s body and applying a too strict treatment; anger – feeling agitated and being hostile towards family and friends, experiencing sense of injustice, can ultimately interfere with everyday activities; guilt – feeling of being deservedly punished that subsequently leads to grief and worthlessness, loss of incentive for a positive attitude; grief – feeling of misunderstanding, cessation of entertaining activities that leads to solitude and related health issues.


May I still eat sweets?

If the food containing carbohydrates and calories is consumed according to your meal plan and if the amount is not too great, then sweets may be consumed. Still, you should check your glucose level if you think you’ve eaten too much.


How does drinking coffee affect diabetes?

Coffee blocks synthesis of the protein associated with development of diabetes and it significantly reduces the risk of the disease. It also contains three specific compounds that affect the body in a positive manner: caffeine, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid.


What fruits can I eat?

Recent studies show that apple, pear and blueberry provide additional protection from diabetes because they contain herbal additive called anthocyanin.


Are nut fruits allowed?

Eating nut fruits such as pistachio, walnut, almond and cashew reduces the risk of diabetes Type 2. They help reduce C-reactive protein inflammation which originates from the liver and is connected with heart diseases and with elevated level of high-density lipoproteins (the “good” cholesterol). It also reduces the BMI index.


What about dairy products?

Although different kinds of cheese are considered unhealthy because of increased level of cheese fat, it reduces the risk of diabetes for 12%. Fermented milk and yoghurt also lower that risk.


Can I consume alcoholic drinks?

If the illness is under control and if your diabetician allows it, you may consume alcoholic drinks, but no more than one or two drinks per day. Alcohol is caloric and it affects body mass regulation, so drinks with high level of sugar and alcohol must be avoided. It is also important to follow the meal plan and take your medication regularly, as well as check your glucose level before consuming alcohol.


What is prediabetes?

Impaired glucose tolerance is a serious condition that precedes the full form of diabetes, and it usually occurs around 10 years before being diagnosed with diabetes. In recent years prediabetes is being detected more often among the younger generation, which is especially dangerous because it may cause atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis and prevention can stop the onset of diabetes.


What are ketones and why are they important?

Ketones are organic compounds that occur in the liver as a product of fat decomposition. In the case of insulin deficiency body cells cannot use glucose as the source of energy, so they start using ketones (beta-Hydroxybutyric acid) which are a good source of energy for the heart and kidneys. Ketones are excreted in urine and through breathing. A high level of ketones in blood can cause diabetic ketoacidosis – its symptoms include excessive thirst, dry mouth and skin, shortness of breath, rapid pulse, vertigo, nausea and vomiting. It is caused by uncontrolled blood glucose level; it can lead to coma and death.


What is A1c hemoglobin?

Hemoglobin is a substance found in erythrocytes, it transfers oxygen. Blood glucose binds with the hemoglobin fragment and creates hemoglobin A1c. The binding occurs during the erythrocyte life cycle that lasts for three months, that is why the value measured indicates the average blood glucose level for that period.
HbA1c and glycated hemoglobin are its synonyms.


What is neuropathy?

It is a condition that affects the nervous system. It is a fairly common condition that affects around 12% of all newly diagnosed patients. It can rise up to 50% in later stages of diabetes.


What kinds of vascular issues are the most common ones?

The most common complication that stems from these symptoms are various vascular diseases of peripheral body (especially legs) that can lead to gangrene and often even amputation; that outcome is 15-40 times greater for diabetics than for the general population.


How does blindness occur?

Diabetic retinopathy occurs as a consequence of damage to small blood vessels and the retina. That is caused by elevated blood glucose level and blood pressure. The symptoms are often not present or they develop very slowly, so quality of vision deterioration is not noticeable. Regular vision checks are extremely important for all diabetics, because timely treatment can prevent loss of sight.


What is the best way to deal with other diseases, such as common cold?

Your physician should prescribe you medicaments for treating various infections, flu or nausea. Check your blood glucose level more frequently than usual (every 2-4 hours); if too low or too high level occurs, contact your physician again. Continue taking medicine and consuming food; if you are too ill to eat solid food, consume carbohydrates in form of juice, fruit purée or fruit yoghurt. If you start vomiting, seek medical assistance at once.


Does nicotine affect status of the illness?

Among other damaging effects it has on health, more fragile general health of a diabetic also means risking further weakening of blood vessel walls that leads to myocardial infarction, kidney damage, poor blood circulation and elevated blood pressure, which in turn can cause retinopathy. Smoking reduces effects of physical exercise because it puts extra load on the heart and lungs and decreases the strength needed for exercise; that is especially true for diabetics.


How can I avoid hypoglycemia?

Hypoglycemia is a low level of blood glucose caused by a too high dose of insulin, alcohol, physical exercise or a skipped meal. It can be avoided by eating regularly, applying adequate doses of medicaments or insulin and more frequent blood glucose level checks (for better control).