Gestational diabetes is a form of the illness that may manifest during pregnancy and it affects 2-4% of pregnant women. It is caused by change in the carbohydrate metabolism that occurs during pregnancy and newly-developed placental hormones.



The treatment consists of balanced diet and physical exercise, and in extreme cases it includes taking insulin. Consequences for the fetus include faster development and more frequent associated anomalies, possibility of preterm birth, jaundice and a higher mortality rate of the newborn. The mother is more susceptible to various infections; labors are performed using Caesarean section more often.


The factors causing gestational diabetes include amniotic fluid excess, previous miscarriages and history of diabetes in the family, newborn’s weight exceeding 4 kg and mother’s increased weight. After birth, the high glucose environment disappears in most of the cases. Possible consequences include increased risk of diabetes type 1 (5-10%) and type 2 (30%) within 10 years after pregnancy.